Classification of Volcanic Mountains

Classification of Volcanic Mountains

On the basis of shape and structure, volcanic mountains can be divided into 4 categories .

  1. Cone – shaped volcanic mountain.
  2. Dome – shaped volcanic mountain.
  3. Volcano with crater.
  4. Composite or volcano with multiple craters.

Cone – shaped volcanic mountain :-

Structure :-

This type of volcanic mountain is formed when magma, ashes, rock fragmentation are forced up through the crater and settle around it. They are also called pyroclast cones.

Characteristics : – 

a) They usually have convex slopes.

b) The slopes made of larger fragments are steeper then those formed of smaller particles.

c) They have low altitudes.

Example : – Paricutin in Mexico.


Dome – shaped volcanic mountain

Structures :-

This type of volcanic mountain is formed when hot molten magma comes out to the earth surface slowly through cracks and fissures and gets deposited around a volcanic crater in a dome – shaped manner.

Characteristics : –

a) These have slopes which are not steep.

b) They are formed by acidic or alkaline lava.

Example : – Mauna Loa in Hawaii island.


Volcano with a crater


Structure : –

When the hot molten lava comes out slowly to the earth surface in the form of violent explosion and creates a crater, the lava and rock fragments subsiquently get deposited around it.

Characteristics :- 

a) Only one big crater that lies on the top of the mountain.

b) Molten lava settles down around the crater after eruption.

Example : – Krafla in Iceland.


Composite or volcano with multiple craters

Structures : – 

These are formed when many big and small volcanic eruptions occur over a long period. Due to multiple volcanic activities, mountain gets height gradually and many layers of lava are formed.

Characteristics : –

a) New cones are formed replacing the old ones over time.

b) The slopes are generally steep and uniform.

Example : – Mt. Fujiyama in Japan.



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