East Indian Company and Bengal
- The East Indian company used its power to monopolies trade and dictate terms to trades of Bengal.
- Imposition of inflted prices of goods led to buccaneering capitalism wherby wealth flowed out of barrel of the British trader’s guns.
- Revenues of Bengal were used to finance exports to England.
- Murshid Quli Khan (1717-1727) :- In 1717, Murshid Quil Khan was appointed as Bengal’s Subedar i.e; governor by Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar. Grant of the Governorship of Orissa also to him by Farrukh Siyar in 1719. He transferred the capital of Bengal fromDacca to Murshidabad.
- Shujauddin (1727- 1739) :- He was the son – in – law of Murshid. He was granted the Governorship of Bihar by Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah 1733.
- Sarfaraj Khan (1739-1740) : – He was the son fo Shujauddin and was murdered by Alibardi Khan, the deputy Governer of Bihar , in 1740.
- Alibardi Khan ( 1740 – 1756) :- Legalised his power of position by reciving a farman from Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah after paying him Rs. 2 Crores. He prevented the English and French from fortifying their factories at Calcutta and Chandanagr.
Sirajuddaula : – (1756 – 57)
- Alibardi Khan was succeeded by his grand – son Sirajuddaula.
- Sirajuddaula seiged the English factory at Kashimbazar on 20th June 1756, For William surrendered but Robert Clive recovered Calcutta.
- On 22nd Jan 1757, Treaty of Alinagar was signed, where by Sirajuddaula conceded practically all the demands. British then captured Chandannagar, the French sttlement on March 1757.
- Battle of Plassy was fought on 23 June 1757. In battle of Plassy, the forces of English East India Company defeated Sirajuddaula. The company had secured valuable privileges in 1717 under a ‘Roayl farman’ by the Mughal Emperor where by they coluld export their goods in Bengal without paying taxes. But the Nawab wanted them to trade on his condition. The English refused to do so instead started building fortification in Calcutta without the permission of the Nawab. This led to Battle of Plassy where the Nawab was defeted due to conspiracy.
Mirjafar (1757-1760): –
- The company was granted undisputed right to free trade in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. It received the Zamindari of 24 Parganas.Mirjafar was forced to abdicate in favour of his son – in – law Mirqasim.
Mirqasim (1760-1764): –
- Mirqasim ceded Burdwan, Midnapore and Chittagaon. He shifted his capital from Murshidabd to Munger.
- Mirqasin soon revolt as he was angry with British for misusing the free duty passes. However, having been defeated by the British, he fled to Awadh, where he formed a confederacy with Awadh rular Shujauddaula and Mughal emperor Shah Alam II.
- Battle of Buxar(1764) : – Mirqasim, Shujauddaula and Shah Alam II were defeated by Munro.
- Mirjafar was again placed on the throne (1764-65)
- Nazmuddaulah (1765-1766),
- Saifuddaula (1766-1770)
- Mubaraquddaula (1770-1772)
Dual Government of Bengal (1765-1772)
- Dual Government of Bengal started in 1765.
- The company acquired both Diwani and NIzamat rights from Nazmuddaula , the Nawab of Bengal. But the company did not take over direct administration and revenue collection.
- Warren Hastings ended the dual system of Government in 1772.